The Commodore C2N Datasettelater also Datassette a portmanteau of data and cassetteis Commodore 's dedicated magnetic tape data storage device. Typical compact cassette interfaces of the late s use a small controller in the computer to convert digital data to and from analog tones. The interface is then connected to the cassette deck using normal sound wiring like RCA jacks or 3.Dj kaywise effect
This sort of system was used on the Apple II  and Color Computeras well as many S bus systems, and allow them to be used with any cassette player with suitable connections. In the Datasette, instead of writing two tones to tape to indicate bits, patterns of square waves are used, including a parity bit.
Programs are written twice to tape for error correction ; if an error is detected when reading the first recording, the computer corrects it with data from the second.
Connection to the computer is done via a proprietary edge connector Commodore or mini-DIN connector The absence of recordable audio signals on this interface makes the Datasette and clones the only cassette recorders usable with Commodore computers, until aftermarket converters made the use of ordinary recorders possible.
Because of its digital format the Datasette is both more reliable than other data cassette systems and very slow,   transferring data at around 50 bytes per second; even the very slow Commodore floppy drive is much faster. After the Datasette's launch, however, special turbo tape software appeared, providing much faster tape operation loading and saving. Such software was integrated into most commercial prerecorded applications mostly gamesas well as being available separately for loading and saving the users' homemade programs and data.
These programs were only widely used in Europe, as the US market had long since moved onto disks. Datasettes can typically store about kByte per 30 minute side. The Datasette was more popular outside than inside the United States. Goldwhich imported American computer games to Britain, often had to wait until they were converted from disk because most British Commodore 64 owners used tape,   while the US magazine Compute! In most parts of Europe, the Datasette was the medium of choice for several years after its launch, although floppy disk drives were generally available.
The inexpensive and widely available audio cassettes made the Datasette a good choice for the budget-aware home computer mass market. The Datasette has only one connection cable, with a 0. Power is also included in this cable.
An Emulated Commodore 64 Operating System For The Raspberry Pi
A mechanical interlock prevents any two of them from being pressed at the same time. The motor power is derived from the computer's unregulated 9 V DC supply  via a transistor circuit. To record physical data, the zero-crossing from positive to negative voltage of the analog signal is measured. The resulting time between these positive to negative crossings is then compared to a threshold to determine whether the time since the last crossing is short 0 or long 1.
A circuit in the tape unit transforms the analog signal into a logical 1 or 0, which is then transmitted to the computer via the tape connector. Inside the computer, the first Complex Interface Adapter in the C64 senses when the signal goes from one to zero.
This event is called trigger and causes an interrupt request. The points that trigger this event are indicated by the black circles in the figure. Inside the tape device the read head signal is fed into an operational amplifier 1 whose output signal is DC -filtered. Op-amp 2 amplifies and feeds an RC filter. Op-amp 3 amplifies the signal again followed by another DC filter.
Op-amp 4 amplifies the signal into clipping the sine-formed signal. The clipped signal therefore fits into the TTL electrical level window of the Schmitt trigger step that in turn feeds the digital cassette port. On the PAL version of the C64, the time granularity is 1.Pomoc publiczna
Once the bits can be decoded, they are fed into a shift register and are continuously compared to a special bit sequence. This bit sequence can also be seen as a byte. A bit-sequence match means that the stream is byte-synchronized.
The first byte to compare with is called lead-in byte. If matched, it's compared to the sync byte as well.But, what about an internal RAM upgrade? That would leave the cartridge port free for one thing. I'll post anything else I can dig up on this. If anyone else can find more info, feel free to add to what I will post here. Perhaps we can get another RAM project going here. I lack information on this.
What's the principle of operation and compatible software? Apparently, it is simpler than the I had both many years ago but only kept the as applications other than GEOS could use it. There is a version of Maniac Mansion which uses GeoRam. GeoRam does not require the heavy duty PSU, the standard one will work. I am still tinkering with it I have to get the uDrive completed first. Meaning there is a version of Turbo Assembler Pro 1.
Also works on a stock machine. I never moved on to looking for the chips. This is what prompted my search.
I found this issue, but this isn't the one I was looking for. He had it setup for "virtual" C64's that he could switch around. It was pretty neat- similar to the simple setup in Transactor.So here I am going to discuss my effort to implement the following 3 techniques: 1 Line Doubling 2 FLD 3 Line Crunching and document what is the simplest way I can find to implement each of them using Kick Assembler.
Once done, I will try to combine all three to implement the technique Tobias mentioned that provides some sort of Double Buffering of Color Ram. Here is what I think is probably going on: in PETSCII all alphanumerical characters have a blank line at the base, so because at the 8th raster line of the original line YSCROLL is changed from 3 in binary to 2 in binarythe screen is moved up by one pixel, and so the bottom raster line of the original line is overwritten by the first raster line of the duplicate line.
The is consistent with what Tobias explained in the original post that inspired this new separate post. But if you now assert a Bad Line Condition between cycles of the last line, the sequencer stays in display state and the RC is incremented again and thus overflows to zero. The VIC will then in the next line start again with the display of the previous text line.
But as no new video matrix data has been read, the previous text line is simply displayed twice. Based on the above, I was expecting that waiting at least until cycle 54 was mandatory, instead playing with the delay specified in cycles delay I realized I can cut say, 30 cycles, and execute the code that moves YSCROLL from 3 to 2 and still get the line doubling.
Based on this it is as if YSCROLL can be decremented from 3 to 2 nearly any time while the line is being displayed: as long as by the time the raster reaches around cycle 54 of the 8th and last line of the original row YSCROLL is still 2, the row will be duplicated. My initial read of chapter "3. I wrote an example of FLD based on your code snippet that pushes the screen downward one line per frame. Here is a picture file named FLD.
QUESTION Is the idea with Linecrunch that we substitute an entire row - that is 8 pixel tall - with the same row but squashed down to be only one single pixel tall, and in doing so we cause the underlying screen to move 7 pixels up without having to manually touch memory? Doing things this way means that if we scroll vertically using double buffering, now instead than 8 opportunities to do so, we have 14, if we decide to sacrifice one single row, or even 21 or moreif we decide to sacrifice 2 rows, etc.
Of course the draw back is that the screen becomes shorter.Soundfonts musical artifacts
Anything I miss? Thank you! The comments have been refreshed so it should be more clear how it all works. Hope you find it useful. But if there is something you would like me to try, just ask: I may give it a go and report back here. No promises. I tried to keep it really as simple as I could. I hope it helps other beginners like me to understand what line crunching is all about.
I am planning to expand on this first attempt so it scroll smoothly up and down.
Stay tuned. I read: A. Notice: The fact that YSCROLL is initially set to 0 means that the top 3 raster lines that belong to the screen area 48 49 and 50 are "scrolled upward" behind the top border: this provides the opportunity to crunch 3 rows without leaving visible "dirt", because after being crunched they each become 1 pixel tall, but since the crunched lines happen at raster line 48 49 and 50 and at the end of this process YSCROLL has in the meanwhile become 3, the first visible raster line will now be 51, that means the 3 "messy" crunched lines are naturally hidden behind the top border.
Retrocomputing Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for vintage-computer hobbyists interested in restoring, preserving, and using the classic computer and gaming systems of yesteryear. It only takes a minute to sign up. What materials would you recommend -- and, importantly, in what order! Since you want to program demo's you will have to learn not only machine code, but also the hardware of the c Both are explained in the original 'Commodore 64 Programmer's Reference Guide'.
In my opinion this book is sufficient to do whatever you want to do with the c This is a disassembly of the c64 roms. You've probably already seen It has a lot of tutorials. Also, if you haven't yet downloaded CBM.
Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top.
Home Questions Tags Users Unanswered. Best path to learn C64 assembly [closed] Ask Question. Asked 2 years, 1 month ago. Active 2 years, 1 month ago. Viewed 9k times. The amount of tutorials, youtube videos, scanned books on C64 programming is overwhelming. Please assume programming knowledge in higher-level languages. Wilson: I started reading scanned "Commodore Programmer Reference Guide", and some resources at If truly a beginner: skilldrick.
I would highly recommend the book "Machine Language for Beginners" to learn the basics of ML and a copy of "Mapping the Commodore 64" - those two books will make you invincible. Mar 7 '18 at A knowledge of is required. This file zimmers. SID is virtually unimportant if you use tools like music editors that give you complete playable 'modules'.
CIAs are pretty simple things and info about them acting in C64 is spread elsewhere googlable. Active Oldest Votes. I will start from that text, but after that what sources would you recommend?Afterlife BBS is alive, once again.
I really appreciated all of the kind words people have said over the past several months about how much they missed the board. Same address as before. Also some minor tweaks, improvements, and bug fixes in several other parts of the program.
C64 S-video mod
From what I can tell, this is about as good as I can get it. This includes the full program with all the drivers for all the modem types, so, no matter which modem type you are using, please upgrade your copy of CCGMS and use this instead. Still only baud, but tested and working.
I may take a shot at adding Swiftlink drivers for faster speed in the future. Thanks for sending that info in.
Between that, some cryptic info I found on old comp. This should allow all those oldschool sysops who lost their original dongles like me to load their original C-Net disks again. Should work with various versions. My original C-Net Parts needed: 4. The xx is your local machine IP. As with all versions of vice, file transfers do not work. If you want to upload and download programs, get a real c Let me know how this works out for you. Remember it plugs into port 2.
Versions confirmed so far: DS-2 In Windows Vice 3. At this time, modems are still out of production, but I hope to resume in the near future. Blog at WordPress. Post to Cancel.The Commodore D Hard Disk was the only family of hard drives that Commodore made for both the home and business market. The electronics are identical in the D and the D unit; the only difference is the size of the installed hard drive, with a jumper set to distinguish between 4 or 6 disk heads.
Originally intended for the metal-cased PET series of computers, they are compatible with the VIC, Commodore 64 and later models with an adaptor. It appears the DOS was never fully completed by Commodore; this is indicated by the way two directories overlap for the one device and the number of blocks free is displayed as if only one hard drive is in use.
Internally the system had a transfer rate of 5. Access time Track-to-Track, Average: ms, 99 ms . Recording density: BPI bits per inch . True: 0. GND into a 74LS14 load. The greatest demand for these drives came from the biggest home computer user market in the world at the time, the Commodore 64 user.
Which is why many bulletin board systems BBS were set up using these hard drives because they could access information so fast and could hold so much information compared to the disk drive which could only access kB on one side of one disk at one time. Due to the structure of the onboard DOS 3. You can pause the directory listing as with any Commodore computer. But if you have scores or hundreds of files saved, then the user must wait some time until the entire directory listing has finished scrolling.
The oldest pricing reference found for this article was titled "Commodore Price List 1-september ". Despite the trifling storage space by conventional standards of these legacy hard drives, formatting either can require a fair amount of patience from the user:.
See here: baltissen. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This section does not cite any sources.Live aus dem C=64 is alive Zimmer - 18.01.2017
Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Retrieved Manufacturer Type UF-Cap. Los Angeles Times. April Disk drives for Commodore 8-bit systems.Internet BBS systems use telnet ip addresses instead of phone numbers. The official website for CGTerm 1. I recommend you run this version of Vice separately from other versions, and use this just for your BBSing.
Grab the. Extract to your C: drive. It will create a folder called c64internet. Inside that folder is the tcpser and x This will set up an ip port atreport speeds as bps, and listen for connections on port It also sets up level 4 logging, which is helpful for monitoring the current status. The following parameters should be all set in your Vice configuration included with this download, but double check them.
Start up the modified version of VICE by running the x For example, if you are running tcpser on your local system and its IP address is If you wish to run Striketerm in WinVice at baud, then use this command to launch tcpser instead:. Using the latest version of Striketermyou will be able to connect to any BBS you like. I am currently testing with the Comet and beta 3 offers Comet support.
Just make sure your comet is set to baud first. Make sure your com port settings on your pc are set to baud. Set telnet port to Setup serial string should be ,N,8,1. Set serial type to null modem. Make sure all boxes on the pages comms, connecting, disconnecting, and diagnostics are ALL unchecked.
On emulation, make sure allow outgoing calls and enable hayes emulation are the only ones checked. Go back to the main page by saving changes. To use the EZ device, you can set your pc com port toset BBS Server to ,n,8,1, and use the up driver in Striketerm to call at baud. Doppleganger still makes ez devices, and they work great! I would like to dial with my comet without having it dependent on the pc for changes. Is there support coming to perform this task with no rs connection to pc etc?
Thanks, Walldog. Yes with the comet hooked directly to the ethernet cable, you can dial out on striketerm at baud. I can see that its capable but i must have a setting wrong.Discord foot pedal
Hello Alwyz. Finding out what the issue is. Been working with Goog from commodore server. Turns out that when you dial a dns name on my machine with striketerm it adds spaces in front of dns address. If you use the winconfig tool and delete the spaces in front of the dns name it works.
What would cause this? Please can you tell me what modem to select once its loaded on a stock c64 and do i leave the protocol to Zmodem?
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